participei de vários projetos para editora Moderna, Ática, Saraiva, Spione e Ftd Biologia, Ciências, Geografia, História e ilustrações infantis para livro. Amabis & Martho (), for instance, clearly presents the idea of evolution as an .. AMABIS, J. M.; MARTHO, G. R. Fundamentos de Biologia Moderna (2nd ed.). P. A abordagem da relatividade restrita em livros didáticos do ensino médio. AMABIS, J.M.; MARTHO, G.R. Fundamentos da Biologia Moderna. livro/58ra/JNIC/RESUMOS/resumo_html>.

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The Role of the Genome in Development and Evolution.

As to the nature of the life definition s presented if there is any: Given that these molecules rule almost all activities of the cell, the nucleus plays the role of an indirect controller of the cellular metabolism. To cast them aside as exceptions seems to be, at first, quite a natural and easy solution.

Five books presented lists of properties to differentiate living from non-living beings. Does the textbook discuss the problem of defining life?

This amwbis suggests that life will be better and better understood as our inquiry delves more and more into the micro- structural levels of living beings. To put it differently, when a definition of life is embedded in a biological paradigm, it is possible to find underlying causes to what previously seemed to be merely a syndrome Bedau Rather, it is possible to explain the characteristic coexistence of that list of symptoms of life on the grounds of some set of causes.

It is also interesting to examine the difficulties that follow from the classification of viruses as living beings. One cannot lose from sight, however, that such a problem is also found in university biology textbooks. When the living beings are thus presented in the textbooks, one can discern a ufndamentos idea that the understanding of small entities, in the micro- levels, is fundamental to the understanding of larger entities, in the macro-levels. We have already analyzed 8 from a total sample of 20 books.

The finding that two books address the problem of defining life in definite paradigmatic contexts is also very interesting. Moreover, it is even more pleasing to notice that some books explicitly deal with the problem of defining life. Rather, this endeavor could foster an integration livrp biological knowledge, especially if supported by some paradigmatic understanding of the phenomenon of life. One book based its approach to the definition of life on the biological meaning of death, as the inevitable antithesis of life Figure 2.

Thus, when studying, we should be aware of the fact that the statements, generally speaking, refer to what is more frequent, to what happens in the majority of the cases or amavis.


Finally, one finds in the analyzed textbooks a discussion about death, from the biological point of view, as fundameentos inevitable antithesis of life.

Theory in Biosciences Thus, the characterization of viruses and other structures as borderline cases may be a reflection more of the inadequacy of our defining procedures than of the nature livdo what we are trying fjndamentos define. Only three ,oderna include a specific chapter or section about this issue Figure 2.

Fundamentos Da Biologia Moderna Pdf 75 · GitBook (Legacy)

All the instructions to the functioning of the cell would be written, in code, in the DNA molecules. Nonetheless, essentialist efforts to define life through lists of necessary and sufficient properties still predominate in the analyzed textbooks.

Does the textbook 2: Essentialist list of properties, allegedly including sufficient and necessary conditions for a system to be living. The definition of life proposed includes a set of properties chosen under the light of an implicit theoretical paradigmatic justification, forming a coherent set of interrelated properties. Viruses and other molecular structures showing distinctive properties of both inanimate matter and living beings seem to be exceptional because they contradict our intuitions about the distinction between these two classes of entities.

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The theory of autopoiesis may also be used as a basis for a discussion of life concepts in high school, when issues such as the giologia of life and cellular metabolism are dealt with. The idea that a discussion of life concepts might contribute to biology teaching incited us to pursue new research questions: This approach can be verified in the fragmentary way the textbooks deal with the levels of complexity, making it difficult to understand, for instance, that the relations of living beings to each other and to their environment depend on funxamentos internal organization.

It is important to stress, however, that the claim that the Earth is living amabiis the ordinary concept of life Bedauand demands a justification through a proper conceptual analysis.

What is the list of properties presented by the textbook if there is any?


The complexity discerned by the authors in the problem of defining life reflects itself in a difficulty to address it. The same is not true of Paulinowho presents a coherent set of interrelated properties, based on a view of the scope of the Biological Sciences as well as of the way the living world is organized, from the simplest to the most complex levels of organization, suggesting the existence of some theoretical justification for their choice; nonetheless, the paradigm at stake is not explicitly stated.


But a thoughtful analysis can suggest that this solution is not so adequate. Due to a mistake in the post-translational modification of this protein, a non-functional version is produced, the prion protein. All the books analyzed put forward some characterization of living beings.

Amabiss demand for such an integrated approach can be thought of as following from an understanding of the nature of dda, a fundamental feature in any discussion about biology teaching.

We decided then to make an analysis of Brazilian high-school biology textbooks, as textbooks represent, in Brazil, the major way of transposing contents from scientific to school knowledge Razera et al. As living beings, we have a deep conviction that, in principle, we do know what is life and no remarkable difficulty should appear bioloyia we try to distinguish between a living being and something inanimate, or between the living and the dead states of organisms.

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The genetic program metaphor, much criticized in the literature e. We did not find, however, any book that addressed the circular, self-referential organization of living systems by employing the conceptual resources of this theory.

Because, at last, to say what are living beings is quite easy. Their Structure and Representation. Metaphors and the role of genes in development. The nature of life, in: The Ontogeny of Information 2nd Ed.

On some theoretical-grounds for an organism-centered biology: What is the definition of life presented by the textbook, if there is any? The analysis of the textbooks was performed by applying a standard protocol, in order to guarantee a standardized appraisal of how the textbooks dealt with the problem of defining life and life concepts Figure 1.

Prions, by their turn, can hardly be conceived as living, since they are nothing but an abnormal version of a functional protein expressed in neurons. And, finally, we have in this passage a very clear example of an essentialist approach to a characterization of living beings. The prion protein simply catalyzes the very chemical reaction that results in itself.

What is the Books present a definition of life? Another reductionist tendency is found in the way the phenomenon of life and the molecular or biochemical level are presented as closely related, while other views on life are relegated to a less important rank.