The Elephantine Papyri. Robert Hutto. Through the nineteenth century and into the beginning of the twentieth, a collection of papyri was found at and around a. The Elephantine papyri are written in Aramaic, the lingua franca of the Persian period from Asia Minor to Arabia and Upper. Egypt. In vocabulary, phraseology. One of the oldest collections of Jewish manuscripts, dating from the fifth century BCE, the Elephantine papyri were written by the Jewish community at.

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This receipt would have been held by Pakhnum and returned to Ananiah son of Haggai when he repaid the loan. This page was elephantune edited on 1 Decemberat A Family Archive from the Nile Valley. Oxford University Press, Future children, however, would still be born slaves.

The eight papyri contained at the Brooklyn Museum concern one particular Jewish family, providing specific information about the daily lives of a man called Ananiah, a Jewish temple official; his wife, Tamut, an Egyptian slave; and their children, over the course of forty-seven years.

Egyptian farmers discovered the archive of Ananiah and Tamut on Elephatine Island inwhile digging for fertilizer papyrl the remains of ancient mud-brick houses. Booklyn Museum of Art. Retrieved 18 July During the Elephantihe Period in Egypt, it was not uncommon to sell children, or even oneself, into slavery to pay debts.

Official excavation of the island commenced inproviding an archaeological context for the fascinating details of daily life revealed in the archives. By the middle of the 4th century BCE, the temple at Elephantine had ceased to function.


Elephantine Papyri – Ancient Near East

You may say in Egypt The discovery of the Brooklyn papyri is a remarkable story itself. A very defective strip of papyrus with writing on both sides.

In the course of this appeal, the Jewish inhabitants of Elephantine speak of the antiquity of the damaged temple:. For his daughter Yehoishema’s dowry, Ananiah had transferred to her partial ownership of the house he shared with Tamut.

The Archives from Elephantine: Egyptian slaves retained control over elephantinf property, had professions, and were entitled to compensation. It was rare for a slave to be freed. They included an Egyptian who held the post of gardener of the Egyptian god Khnum and, on the other side, two Persian boatmen.

Elephantine papyri

The Jews had their own elephantiine to Yahweh [1] evincing polytheistic beliefs, which functioned alongside that of Khnum. The Elephantine Papyri is the collective name commonly given to several archives of documents belonging to members of a Jewish garrison community which inhabited the island of Elephantine ancient Yebnear Aswan in Egypt, between and BCE.

Elephantinr order of King Darius. After lying in a warehouse for more than 50 years, the papyri were shipped to the Egyptian Department of the Brooklyn Museum.

Elephantine papyri – Wikipedia

As an institution, slavery in Egypt at that time differed in notable ways from the practice in some other cultures: Three years after purchasing the house from Bagazust and Ubil, Ananiah transferred ownership of an apartment within the now renovated house to his wife, Tamut. This document to the right describes a property purchased by Ananiah, twelve years after his marriage, from a Elphantine soldier named Bagazust and his wife, Ubil. In contrast to Jewish documents like this one, contemporaneous Egyptian marriage documents were negotiated between a husband and wife.


This unique Jewish community possessed its own temple to Yahweh on the island, apparently functioning alongside the long-established cult shrine of the local ram-headed deity Khnum. Princeton University Press,pp. The Elephantine Papyri consist of documents from the Egyptian border fortresses of Elephantine elephantlne Syene Aswanwhich yielded hundreds of papyri in Hieratic and Demotic EgyptianAramaicGreekLatin and Copticspanning a period of years.

In this case, Ananiah and Tamut already had a young son when the document was drawn up. A multicultural couple marries, buys a house, raises kids.

Both Sanballat and Johanan are mentioned in the Book of Nehemiah2: Your email address will not be published. Retrieved from ” https: There is evidence from excavations that the rebuilding and enlargement of the Khnum temple under Nectanebo II — took the place of the former temple of YHWH.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Elephantine papyri. To] my brethren Yedoniah and the Jewish garrison, your brother Hanani[ah].

In addition, special provision was made to free the couple’s son, also a slave to Meshullam; perhaps Ananiah consented to the small dowry of either 7 or 15 shekels the text is ambiguous in order to obtain his son’s freedom.